ADHD is believed to affect several regions of the brain that are involved in attention, motivation, and executive function. These regions include the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
The prefrontal cortex is responsible for executive functions such as planning, organizing, and regulating behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have reduced activity in this region, which can result in difficulties with these functions.
The basal ganglia are involved in motor control and habitual behavior, as well as reward processing and motivation. Some research suggests that individuals with ADHD may have abnormalities in this region, which can contribute to problems with attention and hyperactivity.
The cerebellum is primarily involved in motor control, but it also plays a role in cognitive processes such as attention, language, and working memory. Studies have shown that individuals with ADHD may have differences in the structure and function of the cerebellum compared to those without ADHD.
Overall, ADHD is thought to be a complex disorder that involves multiple regions of the brain and various neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine and norepinephrine.