ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the functioning of the brain. While the exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, research suggests that it is related to differences in the brain's structure and function. Here are some ways in which ADHD can affect the brain:
- Dopamine levels: ADHD is associated with lower levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in motivation, reward, and attention. This may contribute to the inattention and motivation problems that are common in individuals with ADHD.
- Prefrontal cortex: The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain responsible for executive functions, such as attention, decision-making, and impulse control. Research suggests that individuals with ADHD may have structural and functional differences in this area of the brain, which can lead to difficulties with these skills.
- Basal ganglia: The basal ganglia are a group of structures in the brain that are involved in movement, emotion, and cognition. Research suggests that individuals with ADHD may have differences in the functioning of the basal ganglia, which can lead to hyperactivity and impulsivity.
- Default mode network: The default mode network is a network of brain regions that is active when the brain is at rest and not focused on a specific task. Research suggests that individuals with ADHD may have differences in the functioning of this network, which can contribute to difficulties with attention and focus.
It's important to note that ADHD is a treatable condition, and individuals with ADHD can benefit from appropriate treatment and support. Treatment may include medication, therapy, and skills training, which can help to improve the functioning of the brain and reduce symptoms of ADHD.